Reconfigurable hardware is by far the most dominant implementation platform in terms of the number of designs per year. During the past decade, security has emerged as a premier design metrics with an ever increasing scope. Our objective is to identify and survey the most important issues related to FPGA security. Instead of insisting on comprehensiveness, we focus on a number of techniques that have the highest potential for conceptual breakthroughs or for the practical widespread adoption. Our emphasis is on security primitives (PUFs and TRNGs), analysis of potential vulnerabilities of FPGA synthesis flow, digital rights management, and FPGA-based applied algorithmic cryptography.We also discuss the most popular and a selection of recent research directions related to FPGA-based security platforms. Specifically, we identify and discuss a number of classical and emerging exciting FPGA-based security research and development directions.